• ساعت : ۱۵:۲۶
  • تاريخ :
     ۱۴۰۳/۰۲/۱۹ 
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دكتر ریچارد پرایس

Dr. Richard Price

معرفی

دکتر ریچارد پرایس، در سال ۱۷۲۳ میلادی در ویلز انگلستان دیده به جهان گشود. دکتر پرایس، یک ریاضی‌دان برجسته و فردی با علاقمندی‌های فراوان بود. وی یک نویسنده، روحانی، دانشمند علوم سیاسی و بیم‌سنج بود. در زمانی که بیمه عمر، تنها در کشور انگلستان، اعتبار داشت، وی به خلق بنیان‌های نظری برای مؤسسات آتی همت گمارد. وی یکی از بنیان‌گذاران تاریخ محاسبات مرگ و میر است که توانست جدول مرگ و میر نورثامپتون[1] را برای اولین بار، تدوین نماید.

دکتر پرایس، برای سالیان متمادی، در لندن، به عنوان بیم‌سنج در شرکت بیمه عمر اکوتیبل لایف[2] مشغول به کار بود. آثار وی که در کتابی با عنوان اکوتیبل اشورنس[3] توسط شرکت مزبور، منتشر شده است، به تاریخ شکل‌گیری این شرکت و بیمه می‌پردازد. وی به دلیل ارائه مشاوره‌های تخصصی و آثاری در زمینه محاسبات جداول بازماندگی[4]، پس‌انداز به شرط حیات[5]، مستمری‌های معوق[6] به عنوان بیمه عمر کودکان و قراردادهای مشابه برای عمر بزرگسالان، بسیار شهرت یافته است.

وی، چندین مقاله در رابطه با محاسبات مرتبط با مستمری‌ها و بیمه عمر به رشته تحریر درآورده است که به صورت گسترده،‌ توسط شرکت‌های بیمه‌ای که در زمان وی شکل گرفتند، استفاده می‌شد. یکی از آثار وی روشی بود که بر اساس آن، حساب‌های شرکت‌های بیمه عمر، تعیین ‌می‌شد. ارزش‌گذاری شرکت بیمه براساس اصولی که وی نگاشته بود، یکی دیگر از آثار وی بود. کار پیشرو دیگر وی درباره «فرم حساب‌ها»[7] بود که استفاده از آن، پیش از اجرای قانون بیمه عمر، برای تمامی شرکت‌ها به مدت ۲۰ سال، اجباری بود. بازده لازم[8] براساس همین قانون، به دست می‌آمد، اما این، رویه‌ای بود که ۷۰ ساله شرکت اکوتیبیل بر اساس کار ریچارد پرایس، به انجام می‌رسانید.

وی مفهوم بیمه عمر با حق بیمه یکنواخت[9] را برای اولین بار مطرح نمود و چندین مدرک افتخاری به دلیل آثار وی در حوزه دانش بیمه عمر از دانشگاه‌های مختلف از جمله ییل[10] آمریکا، کسب کرد.

برخی آثار علمی

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Richard Price and the Ethical Foundations of the American Revolution: Selections from His Pamphlets, with Appendices (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1979), ed. by Bernard Peach, contrib. by Jon Erik Larson (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Amerikanische bibliothek. (Weygandschen handlung, 1777), also by Christoph Daniel Ebeling and John Lind (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Autobiography (Philadelphia: : Printed for Benjamin Johnson, no. 147, High-Street., M,DCC,XCIV. [1794]), also by Benjamin Franklin, Henry Stueber, James Thackara, and J. Vallance (HTML at Evans TCP)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Defences of Unitarianism for the year 1786, containing letters to Dr. Horne, dean of Canterbury; to the young men, who are in a course of education for the Christian ministry, at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; to the Rev. Dr. Price; and to the Rev. Mr. Parkhurst; on the subject of the person of Christ. (Printed for the author, by Pearson and Rollason, 1788), also by Joseph Priestley, John Parkhurst, and George Horne (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A discourse addressed to a congregation at Hackney, on February 21, 1781. Being the day appointed for a public fast. (Printed for T. Cadell, 1781) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A discourse on the love of our country, : delivered on Nov. 4, 1789, at the meeting-house in the old Jewry, to the Society for commemorating the revolution in Great Britain. : With an appendix containing the report of the committee of the society; an account of the populace of France; And the Declaration of Rights by the National Assembly of France. ... (Printed by George Stafford, for T. Cadell, in the Strand., 1790) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A discourse on the love of our country, delivered on Nov. 4, 1789, at the meeting-house in the Old Jewry, to the Society for Commmemorating the Revolution in Great Britain. / By Richard Price, D.D. LL.D. F.R.S. and fellow of the American Philosophical Societies at Philadelphia and Boston. ([Boston] : London, printed: Boston, reprinted: by Edward E. Powars, Court Street., M.DCC.XC. [1790]), also by England) Revolution Society (London (HTML at Evans TCP)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: The doctrine of annuities and assurances on lives and survivorships, stated and explained (T. Cadell, 1779), also by William Morgan (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Experience preferable to theory, an answer to Dr. Price's Observations on the nature of civil liberty, and the justice and policy of the war with America (Printed for T. Payne ..., 1776) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Facsimiles of two papers by Bayes. I. An essay toward solving a problem in the doctrine of chances, with Richard Price's forward and discussion; Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., pp.370-418, 1763. With a commentary by Edward C. Molina. II. A letter on asymptotic series from Bayes to John Canton; pp.269-271 of the same volume. With a commentary by W. Edwards Deming. (Hafner Pub. Co., 1963), also by Thomas Bayes, John Canton, E. C. Molina, and W. Edwards Deming (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Four dissertations (Printed for T. Cadell..., 1777) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Four dissertations. (London : Printed for A. Millar and T. Cadell, 1767., 1767) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Four dissertations. I On providence. II. On prayer. III. On the reasons for expecting that virtuous men shall meet after death in a state of happiness. IV. On the importance of Christianity, the nature of historical evidence, and miracles. (Printed for T. Cadell, 1772) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A free discussion of the doctrine of materialism, and philosophical necessity (Printed for J. Johnson and T. Cadell, 1778), also by Joseph Priestley (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A free discussion of the doctrines of materialism, and philosophical necessity in a correspondence between Dr. Price, and Dr. Priestley. To which are added, by Dr. Priestley, an introduction, explaining the nature of the controversy, and letters to several writers who have animadverted on his disquistitions relating to matter and spirit, or his treatise on necessity. (Printed for J. Johnson and T. Cadell, 1778), also by Joseph Priestley (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: A free examination of Dr. Price's and Dr. Priestley's sermons ... with a postscript ... (J. Dodsley, 1790), also by William Keate and Joseph Priestley (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: H. Goodricke's Aenmerkungen op Dr. Price's leer en grondbeginselen van burgerlyke vryheit en regeering voorgegaen door en brief aen eenen vriend over de vermeende voorrechten der Americaensche volkplantingen beschouwd met opzigt tot recht en billykheit. (By L. Herdingh, 1777), also by Henry Goodricke (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: The Honor of Parliament and the justice of the nation vindicated in a reply to Dr. Price's Observations on the nature of civil liberty. (Printed for W. Davis ..., 1776) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Letters to and from Richard Price, D.D., F.R.S., 1767-1790. (John Wilson and Son, University Press, 1903) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Lord Monboddo and some of his contemporaries (London : John Murray, 1900., 1900), also by William Angus Knight, George. Baker, Welbore Ellis. Mendip, Allan Ramsay, Dugald Stewart, George Lewis Scott, James Harris, Samuel. Horsley, and James Burnett Monboddo (page images at HathiTrust; US access only)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on Dr. Price's theory and principles of civil liberty and government ; preceded by a Letter to a friend, on the pretensions of the American colonies, in respect of right and equity (Printed by A. Ward, for J. Dodsley, T. Cadell, and R. Baldwin, London;, 1776), also by Henry Goodricke (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on reversionary payments; on schemes for providing annuities for widows, and for persons in old age; on the method of calculating the values of assurances on lives; and on the national debt to which are added four essays on different subjects in the doctrine of life-annuities and political arithmetick, also an appendix ... (T. Cadell and W. Davis, 1772), also by William Morgan (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on reversionary payments; on schemes for providing annuities for widows, and for persons in old age; on the method of calculating the values of assurances on lives; and on the national debt. To which are added, four essays on different subjects in the doctrine of life annuities and political arithmetick. Also, an appendix and supplement, containing additional observations, and a complete set of tables ... The third edition, much enlarged. (Printed for T. Cadell, 1773) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on reversionary payments : on schemes for providing annuities for widows, and for persons in old age; on the method of calculating the values of assurances on lives; and on the national debt. Also, ... a postscript on the population of the kingdom. The whole new arranged, and enlarged by the addition of algebraical and other notes, ... (T. Cadell & W. Davies, 1812) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on reversionary payments : on schemes for providing annuities for widows, and for persons in old age; on the method of calculating the values of assurances on lives; and on the national debt : to which are added four essays ... also an appendix ... (Printed for T. Cadell, in the Strand, 1771) (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on reversionary payments : on schemes for providing annuitites for widows, and for persons in old age, on the method of calculating the values of assurances on lives and on the national debt : also, essays on different subjects in the doctrine of life-annuities and political arithmetic ... (Printed for T.Cadell, 1792), also by William Morgan and John Richards (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on the importance of the American revolution and the means of making it a benefit to the world to which is added a letter from M. Turgot, late comptroller-general of the finances of France : with an appendix containing a translation of the will of M. Fortuné Ricard, lately published in France (Printed for L. White, W. Whitestone, P. Byrne [and 3 others], 1785), also by Turgot (page images at HathiTrust)

Price, Richard, 1723-1791: Observations on the importance of the American Revolution and the means of making it a benefit to the world (Printed by True & Weston, 1820) (page images at HathiTrust)

وبسایت:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Price

 


[1] Northampton Mortality Table

[2] The Equitable Life Assurance Society

[3] Equitable Assurance

[4] Survivorship

[5] Endowment

[6] Deferred annuity

[7] Accounts form

[8] Required return

[9] Level premium life insurance

[10] Yale University

امتیاز :  ۰ |  مجموع :  ۰

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